5th Generation Mobile Networks–5G Arrives

5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems (5G) is the latest generation of cellular mobile communication technology and is an extension of 4G (LTE-A, WiMAX-A) systems. 5G’s performance goals are high data rates, reduced latency, energy savings, reduced costs, increased system capacity and large-scale device connectivity.
Like the early 2G, 3G, and 4G mobile networks, the 5G network is a digital cellular network in which the service area covered by the provider is divided into a number of small geographic areas called cells. The analog signals representing the sound and image are digitized in the handset, converted by the analog to digital converter and transmitted as a bit stream. All 5G wireless devices in the cell communicate with local antenna arrays and low power automatic transceivers (transmitters and receivers) in the cell via radio waves. The transceiver allocates channels from a common frequency pool that can be reused in geographically separated cells. The local antenna is connected to the telephone network and the Internet via a high bandwidth fiber or wireless backhaul connection. As with existing handsets, when a user moves from one cell to another, their mobile device will automatically “switch” to the channel in the new cell.

The main advantage of 5G networks is that the data transmission rate is much higher than the previous cellular network, up to 10 Gbit/s, which is faster than the current wired Internet and 100 times faster than the previous 4G LTE cellular network. [14][15] Another advantage is lower network latency (faster response time), less than 1 millisecond, and 4G is 30-70 milliseconds. [15] Due to faster data transmission, 5G networks will not only serve mobile phones, but will also become a general home and office network provider, competing with cable network providers. Previous cellular networks offered low data rate Internet access for mobile phones, but a cell tower could not economically provide enough bandwidth as a general Internet provider for home computers.

5G networks achieve higher data rates by using higher frequency radio waves in or near the millimeter wave band of 30 to 300 GHz [14], while previous cellular networks used microwaves between 700 MHz and 3 GHz. The frequency in the band. Some 5G vendors will use the second low frequency range in the microwave band, below 6 GHz, but this will not have the high speed of the new frequency. Due to the richer bandwidth of the millimeter wave band, 5G networks will use a wider channel to communicate with wireless devices with bandwidths up to 800 MHz, while 4G LTE has 20 MHz bandwidth and can transmit more data per second (bits). . The OFDM modulation technique utilizes multiple carriers to transmit in a frequency channel to simultaneously transmit multiple bits of information in parallel.

The millimeter wave is absorbed by the gas in the atmosphere and is smaller than the range of microwave radiation, so the size of the cell is smaller; the 5G cell will be as large as a city block, and the previous cellular network may span several kilometers. It is also difficult for electromagnetic waves to pass through the walls of a building, requiring multiple antennas to cover a single cell. [14] Millimeter-wave antennas are smaller than the large antennas used in previous cellular networks, only a few inches long, so 5G cells will be covered by many antennas mounted on telephone poles and buildings instead of a base station tower or base station. . [15] Another technique used to increase the data transmission rate is massive MIMO technology. [14] Each cell will have multiple antennas to communicate with the wireless device. Each antenna is received by multiple antennas in the device through a separate channel, so that multiple data streams will be transmitted simultaneously in parallel. In a technique called beamforming, the base station computer will continuously calculate the optimal path for radio waves to reach each wireless device and will organize multiple antennas to cooperate in the form of phased arrays (also known as “phase arrays”). Work to produce a millimeter beam that reaches the device. [14][15] Smaller, more cellular makes the 5G network infrastructure more expensive per square kilometer than previous cellular networks. Deployment is currently limited to metropolitan areas, where each handset has enough users to provide a sufficient return on investment, and there is a question about whether the technology can reach the local area. [14]

The new 5G wireless device also has 4G LTE capabilities, as the new network uses 4G to create connections with the cellular, and 4G is also used where 5G is not available. [16]

The high data transfer rate and low latency of 5G are considered to have new uses in the near future. [16] One application is actual virtual reality and augmented reality. Another application is fast machine-to-machine interaction in the Internet of Things. For example, computers in a vehicle on a road can continuously communicate with each other through 5G, or can continuously communicate with the road.
The Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance defines the following requirements for 5G networks:

Support tens of thousands of users at a data transmission rate of 10 Gbps;
Provided to many people working in the same building at a data transmission rate of 1 Gbps;
Support hundreds of thousands of concurrent connections to support the deployment of large-scale sensor networks;
Spectral efficiency should be significantly enhanced compared to 4G;
Coverage is higher than 4G;
Signaling efficiency should be strengthened;
The delay should be significantly lower than LTE.
The Next Generation Mobile Network Alliance believes that 5G should be launched in 2020 to meet the needs of businesses and consumers. In addition to simply providing faster speeds, they predict that 5G networks will also need to meet new use case requirements, such as the Internet of Things (network equipment buildings or Web-access vehicles), broadcast services, and lifeline communications in the event of a natural disaster. .

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